Homo Erectus vs. Homo Sapien: Under the archaic human group that originated some 500,000 years ago from now, the different Homo types are broadly categorized.
This group typically contains
|Homo Rhodesiensis||300,000 years ago|
|Homo Neanderthalensis||250,000 years ago|
|Homo Antecessor||1200,000 years ago|
|Homo Heidelbergensis||600,000 years ago|
The archaic human group completely contrasts with the modern humans based on their anatomic traits.
The Homo Sapiens idaltu and the Homo Sapiens sapiens have been categorized under modern humans. According to the “Toba catastrophe theory” only 70 000 years ago, modern humans evolved.
A recent study on genetics has suggested that the evolution of modern humans happened with at least two ancient human varieties, the Denisovans and the Neanderthals. In theory, modern humans seem to be evolving from the archaic humans who earlier evolved from the Homo Erectus.
The main difference between Homo Sapiens and Homo Erectus is that Homo Erectus was less intelligent with a smaller brain, whereas the Homo Sapiens were more intelligent with a larger brain.
Table of Contents
Homo Sapiens vs. Homo Erectus Differences (Quick Overview)
|Definition||Homo Erectus is an extinct species of archaic humans, whereas Homo Sapiens are those species to which modern humans belong.|
|Names||The meaning of Homo Erectus is ‘upright man’, whereas the meaning of Homo Sapiens is ‘man who thinks.|
|Thriving or Extinct||Homo Erectus species is extinct, but the Homo Sapiens species is thriving as of now.|
|Evolution||The evolution of Homo Erectus happened from the Australopithecus somewhere close to 2 Mya, while the evolution of Homo Sapiens occurred about 300,000 years ago from the early modern humans.|
Who is Homo Erectus?
The Homo Erectus is often denoted as an “upright man”. They are different from the archaic human groups and modern humans. It was majorly believed that the population which was similar to the Homo Erectus were the ancestors of modern living human beings called “Homo Sapiens”. The Homo Erectus are believed to have their evolution inside Africa some 1.8 million years ago. They later on migrated to Europe from Asia. It is believed that this species came to extinction some 0.5 million years ago. With these time data, we can place Homo Erectus between Homo Sapiens’s modern appearance and Homo habilis. The migration of Homo Erectus to Europe, followed by Asia, seems to be appearing some one million years ago from now.
Recently in Georgia, the lower jaw of a Homo Erectus individual was found, which dates back to some 1.6 million years ago. Outside Africa, these were the appearance of the first hominids. Also, the incorporation of systematic hunting into their lifestyle was first done by the Homo Erectus. Those were the first ones to have an extended childhood. Homo Erectus had the capability of using fire and making tools. They were capable of leading a more complex lifestyle also. In comparison to Homo habilis, their body size and brain size were bigger in size. The size of their brain was between 850-1100 cc. The females had a body size of 1.55 meters, and the males had a body size of 1.8 meters.
The use of stone tools like hand axe was done by the Homo Erectus. They had low and long craniums. Homo Erectus also had a wide and short face with a nasal aperture that was projected forward. In this group, the pronounced brow ridges were also prominent. The most striking feature in the behavior of this group was the ability to reduce the body size dimorphism between the sexes.
Who is Homo Sapien?
Homo Sapiens are believed to be evolved in Africa some 200,000 years ago due to a dramatic climate change. Their behaviors had some evolution over the years and made them face the challenges successfully in an unstable environment. In comparison to the early humans, these modern humans had the possession of a skeleton that was lighter in build. These modern humans were also having larger heads with short femoral necks attached to them. Their brain size was around 1200 cc which was much larger in size. The subspecies Homo Sapiens idaltu and Homo Sapiens sapiens are also included in this group. In 1997, the Homo Sapiens idaltu were found in Herto Bouri in Ethiopia and was believed to be a subspecies of Homo Sapiens.
Homo Sapiens is the first to depict modern speech. A high vaulted thin-walled skull with a near and flat vertical forehead was the striking feature of these modern humans. And these modern human faces were also showing prognathism and less heavy brow ridges. Their jaws were less developed, too heavily, with smaller teeth as well. As per the relationship of evolution, the direct ancestor of Homo Sapiens still lies unknown. Many paleoanthropologists believe that their ancestors can be either Homo heidelbergensis or some other.
Homo Erectus and Homo Sapien Similarities
- Both their ancestors are related.
- The origin of both is from the African continent.
- Both are capable of leading a more complex lifestyle.
- Both have been known to hunt, and both have extended childhood also.
- Both had the capability to use fire and make tools.
14 Key Differences Between Homo Sapiens and Homo Erectus
|Basis||Homo Sapiens||Homo Erectus|
|Dispersal||Homo Sapiens were widely distributed.||Homo Erectus lived in Asia, Europe, and Africa by 1.8 Mya, throughout the world|
|Subspecies||Homo Sapiens idaltu (extinct) and Homo Sapiens sapiens are the two subspecies of Homo Sapiens||Nanjing Man, Lantian Man, Meganthropus, Peking Man, travel Man, and Solo Man are some subspecies of Homo Erectus|
|Brain Size||The size of the brain of Homo Sapiens was around 1300 cc||The size of Homo Erectus’s brain was 850 cc to 1100 cc|
|Intelligence||Homo Sapiens were more intelligent||Homo Erectus were less intelligent|
|Teeth||Homo Sapiens had smaller teeth||Homo Erectus had larger teeth|
|Jaws||Homo Sapiens had weaker jaws||The jaws of Homo Erectus were heavily built|
|Brow Ridges and Prognathism||Homo Sapiens had quite lite eye ridges and less prognathism||The eye ridges of Homo Erectus are very heavy and have more prognathism|
|Chin||Homo Sapiens had a more prominent chin||Homo Erectus had a less prominent chin|
|Facial Features||Homo Sapiens had faced similar to modern man||Homo Erectus had faced similar to apes|
|Skeleton||Homo Sapiens had weaker and thiner bones||Homo Erectus had stronger and thicker bones|
|Legs and Arms||The legs and arms of Homo Sapiens were shorter legs and less slender arms||The legs and arms of Homo Erectus were longer legs and more slender arms|
|Height||The height of Homo Sapiens was more||The height of Homo Erectus was less|
|Speech||The Homo Sapiens used modern speech||The Homo Erectus used primitive speech|
|Sexual Dimorphism||Sexual dimorphism is more pronounced in Homo Sapiens||Sexual dimorphism is less pronounced in Homo Erectus|
The Homo Sapiens sapiens and Homo Sapiens idaltu are said to be modern humans. The discovery of Homo Sapiens idaltu occurred in Herto Bouri, Ethiopia. As per the “Toba catastrophe theory”, only before 70000 years ago, the process of evolution of modern humans happened. Most probably, the evolution of modern humans started some 200,000 years ago. Recent genetic studies have suggested that modern humans evolved from at least two ancient human species, like Denisovans and Neanderthals. On Theory, the evolution of modern humans occurred from archaic humans who have earlier evolved from Homo Erectus.