Federation is a political entity that comprises a group of self-governing states or regions, which are united through a central government. It is a form of political organization that allows individual regions or states to retain their power while sharing common national interests. The central government is responsible for defense, foreign affairs, and other national issues, while the individual states manage their internal affairs, such as education, healthcare, and resource management. Federations offer several advantages, such as the ability to balance regional needs with national priorities, promote cultural diversity, and improve economic stability. Examples of federations include the United States, Australia, and Canada.